Occurrence of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors
in sewage and receiving waters at Spitsbergen and in Norway

by
Vasskog T, Anderssen T, Pedersen-Bjergaard S, Kallenborn R, Jensen E.
Department of Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, University of Tromsø, Tromsø, Norway.
J Chromatogr A. 2008 Jan 31


ABSTRACT

A method for the determination of five selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (citalopram, sertraline, fluoxetine, fluvoxamine and paroxetine) and four of their metabolites (desmethylcitalopram, didesmethylcitalopram, norfluoxetine and desmethylsertraline) in seawater and sewage influents and effluents, has been developed and validated. The method is based on a three-phase hollow-fibre supported liquid phase microextraction of 1.1L samples, followed by high performance liquid chromatography with electrospray ionization and mass spectrometric detection. The detection limits varied between 17pg/L (citalopram) and 618ng/L (desmethylsertraline), and the quantification limits between 57pg/L (citalopram) and 4.1ng/L (desmethylsertraline). Sampling was done from February to August in 2007 on three different locations with dissimilarities concerning waste water treatment procedures. No significant difference in SSRI cleansing efficiency between merely sieving (Langnes STP, Tromsø) and a more advanced sewage treatment (VEAS STP, Oslo) was seen. All the investigated compounds are present in all waste water samples from these STPs, and a total concentration of SSRIs and metabolites up to 840ng/L has been found. Untreated sewage samples have been collected in the small town Longyearbyen at Spitsbergen. Despite few inhabitants (2000), it was still possible to find traces of SSRIs in the waste water. In Tromsø and Longyearbyen the waste water is discharged into the sea, therefore seawater samples have been collected close to the outlets. The results show higher concentrations of SSRIs outside Longyearbyen than Tromsø, possibly due to the stronger tidal currents around Tromsø. However, the concentrations are quite low, not exceeding total concentrations of 3ng/L.
SSRIs
Risks
Options
Serotonin
Sertraline
Fluoxetine
Paroxetine
Citalopram
SSRIs 2006
Fluvoxamine
SSRIs: review
SSRIs and sex
SSRIs and PMT
SSRIs and safety
SSRIs and jealousy
SSRI pharmacology
The serotonin receptors
SSRI-induced melancholy
Body dysmorphic disorder
Methylphenidate and SSRIs
Serotonin and romantic lovers
Serotonin: neuropharmacology
Acute SSRIs and emotional processing
Serotonin and the genetics of depression
Dopaminergic and noradrenergic antidepressants
Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs): binding profiles
Selective publication of clinical trials leads to unrealistic estimates of antidepressant efficacy

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