Neuropeptides and human sleep
by
Steiger A, Holsboer F
Max Planck Institute of Psychiatry,
Department of Psychiatry, Munich, Germany.
Sleep 1997 Nov; 20(11):1038-52


ABSTRACT

Results from preclinical studies have validated the participation of neuropeptides in sleep regulation. In recent human and clinical studies it has been shown that peripheral administration of various peptides results in specific changes in the sleep electroencephalogram in humans. Furthermore, it has been demonstrated that certain peptides are common regulators of the electrophysiological and neuroendocrine components of sleep. It is now well established that the balance between the neuropeptides growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH) and corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) plays a key role in normal and pathological sleep regulation. In young normal subjects, GHRH stimulates slow-wave sleep and growth hormone secretion but inhibits cortisol release, whereas CRH has the opposite effect. During normal aging and during acute depression, the GHRH:CRH ratio is changed in favor of CRH, resulting in disturbances in sleep endocrine activity. In addition to GHRH, galanin, growth hormone-releasing peptide, and neuropeptide Y also promote sleep, unlike ACTH(4-9), which disturbs sleep. In elderly subjects, sleep deteriorates after acute administration of somatostatin but improves after chronic treatment with vasopressin. Vasoactive intestinal polypeptide decelerates the non-rapid eye movement-rapid eye movement cycle and advances the occurrence of the cortisol nadir. The impact of delta sleep-inducing peptide, cholecystokinin, and thyrotropin-releasing hormone on human sleep regulation is not yet clear. This paper reviews recent work investigating the influence of these various neuropeptides on sleep.
CRF
Caffeine
Adrafinil
Modafinil
Pemoline
Selegiline
Adenosine
Sleepiness
Amineptine
Noradrenaline
Growth hormone
Methylphenidate
Sleep deprivation
Retarded depression


Refs
and further reading

HOME
HedWeb
Nootropics
erythroxylum-coca.com
Future Opioids
BLTC Research
MDMA/Ecstasy
Superhapiness?
Utopian Surgery?
The Abolitionist Project
The Hedonistic Imperative
The Reproductive Revolution
Critique of Huxley's Brave New World

The Good Drug Guide
The Good Drug Guide

The Responsible Parent's Guide
To Healthy Mood Boosters For All The Family