The role of age, genotype, sex, and route of acute and chronic administration of methylphenidate: A review of its locomotor effects
by
Dafny N, Yang PB.
Department of Neurobiology and Anatomy,
The University of Texas Medical School at Houston,
P.O. Box 20708, Houston, TX 77225, USA.
Brain Res Bull. 2006 Feb 15;68(6):393-405.


ABSTRACT

Children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are treated for extended periods of time with the psychostimulant methylphenidate (MPD). The psychostimulants cocaine, amphetamine, and MPD exhibit similar structural configuration and pharmacological profile. The consequence of the long-term use of psychostimulants such as MPD as treatment for ADHD in the developing brain of children is unknown. Repeated treatment with psychostimulants has been shown to elicit adverse effects in behavior, such as dependence, paranoia, schizophrenia, and behavioral sensitization. Behavioral sensitization and cross-sensitization between two drugs are used as experimental markers to determine the potential of a drug to develop dependence/addiction. Although there are many reviews written about behavioral sensitization involving psychostimulants, scarcely any have focused specifically on MPD-elicited behavioral sensitization and cross-sensitization with other psychostimulants. Moreover, the response to MPD and the expression of ADHD vary among females and males and among different populations due to genetic variability. Since the interpretation and synthesis of the data reported are controversial, this review focuses on the adverse effects of MPD and the role of age, sex, and genetic composition on the acute and chronic effects of MPD, such as MPD-elicited behavioral sensitization and cross-sensitization with amphetamine in animal models. Animal models of drug-induced locomotor stimulation, particularly locomotor sensitization, can be used to understand the mechanisms underlying human drug-induced dependence.
AD/HD
Reward
Cocaine
Cannabis
Dopamine
Dopaminergics
NMDA antagonists
Methylphenidate SR
Methylphenidate and SSRIs
The neural basis of addiction
Dexmethylphenidate (Focalin)
Big Pharma meets Madison Avenue
Methylphenidate, dopamine and PD
Methylphenidate/bipolar depression
Methylphenidate (Ritalin) : structure
Methylphenidate, dopamine and cocaine


Refs
and further reading

HOME
HedWeb
Nootropics
erythroxylum-coca.com
Future Opioids
BLTC Research
MDMA/Ecstasy
Superhapiness?
Utopian Surgery?
The Abolitionist Project
The Hedonistic Imperative
The Reproductive Revolution
Critique of Huxley's Brave New World

The Good Drug Guide
The Good Drug Guide

The Responsible Parent's Guide
To Healthy Mood Boosters For All The Family