The antidepressant phenelzine protects neurons and astrocytes against formaldehyde-induced toxicity
Song MS, Baker GB, Dursun SM, Todd KG.
Neurochemical Research Unit,
Department of Psychiatry, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, Canada.
J Neurochem. 2010 Sep 1;114(5):1405-13.
ABSTRACTReactive aldehydes have been implicated in the etiology of several neurological and psychiatric disorders, and there is considerable interest in drugs to counteract the actions of these aldehydes. Increased formaldehyde (FA) and up-regulation of semicarbazide-sensitive amine oxidase, which forms FA from methylamine, have been implicated in disorders such as cerebrovascular disorders, alcohol abuse, diabetes and Alzheimer's disease. Phenelzine (PLZ), a monoamine oxidase inhibitor, is an antidepressant that has recently received attention for its neuroprotective/neurorescue properties. We investigated FA-induced toxicity and the effects of PLZ using rat primary cortical neurons and astrocytes and found that FA induced toxicity in neurons and astrocytes by multiple means. In astrocytes, FA decreased glutamate transporter expression, inhibiting glutamate uptake. PLZ reversed the decrease of glutamate uptake and the alteration of the second messengers, AKT and p38, induced by FA. PLZ alone affected the GLT-1 glutamate transporter in opposite directions in astrocytes and neurons. Thus, PLZ has multiple actions in neurons and astrocytes that may contribute to its neuroprotection.MAO
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