Cellular mechanism of action of cognitive enhancers: effects of nefiracetam on neuronal Ca2+ channels
Yoshii M, Watabe S, Murashima YL, Nukada T, Shiotani T.
Department of Neurophysiology,
Tokyo Institute of Psychiatry, Japan.
Alzheimer Dis Assoc Disord 2000;14 Suppl 1:S95-102
ABSTRACTCellular mechanisms underlying the cognition-enhancing actions of piracetam-like nootropics were studied by recording Ca2+ channel currents from neuroblastoma x glioma hybrid (NG108-15) cells and Xenopus oocytes expressing Ca2+ channels. In NG108-15 cells, nefiracetam (1 microM) produced a twofold increase in L-type Ca2+ channel currents. A similar, but slightly less potent effect was observed with aniracetam, whereas piracetam and oxiracetam exerted no such effects. Cyclic AMP analogs mimicked the nefiracetam action. N-type Ca2+ channel currents inhibited by leucine (Leu)-enkephalin by means of inhibitory G proteins (Go/Gi) were recovered promptly by nefiracetam, whereas those inhibited by prostaglandin E1 via stimulatory G proteins were not affected by nefiracetam. Cells treated with pertussis toxin (500 ng/mL, > 20 hours) were insensitive to nefiracetam. In Xenopus oocytes functionally expressing N-type (alpha1B) Ca2+ channels and delta-opioid receptors, nefiracetam was also effective in facilitating the recovery from Leu-enkephalin-induced inhibition. These results suggest that nefiracetam, and possibly aniracetam, may activate N- and L-type Ca2+ channels in a differential way depending on how they recover from Go/Gi-mediated inhibition.Piracetam
Nootropics ('smart drugs')
and further reading
The Abolitionist Project
The Hedonistic Imperative
The Reproductive Revolution
Critique of Huxley's Brave New World
The Good Drug Guide
The Responsible Parent's Guide
To Healthy Mood Boosters For All The Family