Implications of co-morbidity for etiology and treatment of neurodegenerative diseases with multifunctional neuroprotective-neurorescue drugs; ladostigil
Youdim MB, Amit T, Bar-Am O, Weinreb O, Yogev-Falach M.
Technion-Rappaport Family Faculty of Medicine,
Eve Topf and NPF Centers for Neurodegenerative Diseases Department of Pharmacology Haifa, Israel.
Neurotox Res. 2006 Dec;10(3-4):181-92.


The recent therapeutic approach in which drug candidates are designed to possess diverse pharmacological properties and act on multiple targets has stimulated the development of several multifunction drugs. These include ladostigil (TV3326) [(N-propargyl-(3R) aminoindan-5yl)-ethyl methyl carbamate], which combines the pharmacophore-neuroprotective effects of rasagiline, a selective monoamine oxidase (MAO)-B inhibitor, with the cholinesterase (ChE) inhibitory activity of rivastigmine or iron chelating moiety such as M30. In the case of M30 the pharmacophore of brain permeable iron chelator VK-28 plus the MAO inhibitor-neuroprotective propargylamine moiety of rasagiline are combined in a single molecule as a potential treatment for Alzheimer's disease, Lewy body disease, and Parkinson's disease with dementia. Here, we discuss the activities of ladostigil in terms of its cholinesterase cognitive enhancing potential, antiParkinson, antidepressant, neuroprotection and APP (amyloid precursor protein) processing potential. One major attribute of ladostigil is its neuroprotective activity in neuronal cell cultures and in vivo. Employing an apoptotic model of neuroblastoma SK-N-SH cells, the molecular mechanism of its neuroprotective activity has been determined. The current studies show that ladostigil significantly decreased apoptosis via inhibition of the cleavage and prevention of caspase-3 activation through a mechanism related to regulation of the Bcl-2 family proteins, resulting in reduced levels of Bad and Bax and induced levels of Bcl-2. In addition, ladostigil elevated the levels of pPKC(pan). We have also followed the regulation of APP processing and found that ladostigil markedly decreased apoptotic-induced levels of holo-APP, as well as stimulated the release of the non-amyloidogenic soluble APP (sAPPalpha? into the conditioned medium via a established protein kinsae C-MAPkinase dependent pathway. Similar to ladostigil, its S-isomer, TV3279, which is a ChE inhibitor lacking MAO inhibitory activity, exerted similar neuroprotective properties and APP processing, suggesting that the mode of action is independent of MAO inhibition. These effects were shown to reside in the propargylamine moiety. These findings indicate that the dual actions of the anti-apoptotic-neuroprotective activity and the ability to modulate APP processing, could make ladostigil a potentially valuable drug for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease.
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