Evidence for a G protein-coupled
gamma-hydroxybutyric acid receptor

by
Snead OC 3rd.
Department of Pediatrics,
Faculty of Medicine,
University of Toronto, Ontario, Canada.
csnead@sickkids.on.ca
J Neurochem 2000 Nov;75(5):1986-96


ABSTRACT

Gamma-Hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) is a naturally occurring metabolite of GABA that has been postulated to exert ubiquitous neuropharmacological effects through GABA(B) receptor (GABA(B)R)-mediated mechanisms. The alternative hypothesis that GHB acts via a GHB-specific, G protein-coupled presynaptic receptor that is different from the GABA(B)R was tested. The effect of GHB on regional and subcellular brain adenylyl cyclase in adult and developing rats was determined and compared with that of the GABA(B)R agonist (-)-baclofen. Also, using guanosine 5'-O:-(3-[(35)S]thiotriphosphate) ([(35)S]GTPgammaS) binding and low-K:(m) GTPase activity as markers the effects of GHB and (-)-baclofen on G protein activity in the brain were determined. Neither GHB nor baclofen had an effect on basal cyclic AMP (cAMP) levels. GHB significantly decreased forskolin-stimulated cAMP levels by 40-50% in cortex and hippocampus but not thalamus or cerebellum, whereas (-)-baclofen had an effect throughout the brain. The effect of GHB on adenylyl cyclase was observed in presynaptic and not postsynaptic subcellular tissue preparations, but the effect of baclofen was observed in both subcellular preparations. The GHB-induced alteration in forskolin-induced cAMP formation was blocked by a specific GHB antagonist but not a specific GABA(B)R antagonist. The (-)-baclofen-induced alteration in forskolin-induced cAMP formation was blocked by a specific GABA(B)R antagonist but not a specific GHB antagonist. The negative coupling of GHB to adenylyl cyclase appeared at postnatal day 21, a developmental time point that is concordant with the developmental appearance of [(3)H]GHB binding in cerebral cortex, but the effects of (-)-baclofen were present by postnatal day 14. GHB and baclofen both stimulated [(35)S]GTPgammaS binding and low-K:(m) GTPase activity by 40-50%. The GHB-induced effect was blocked by GHB antagonists but not by GABA(B)R antagonists and was seen only in cortex and hippocampus. The (-)-baclofen-induced effect was blocked by GABA(B)R antagonists but not by GHB antagonists and was observed throughout the brain. These data support the hypothesis that GHB induces a G protein-mediated decrease in adenylyl cyclase via a GHB-specific G protein-coupled presynaptic receptor that is different from the GABA(B)R.
GHB
GABA
MDMA
Opioids
Reward
Alcohol
Dopamine
21st century
GHB and GABA
GHB withdrawal
GHB and cocaine
Drugs and reward
GHB and alcoholism
GHB and narcolepsy
Rodent polydrug abusers
GHB and growth hormone
GHB, GABA(A) and GABA(B)
GHB , tryptophan and serotonin
Drink, drugs and sex in antiquity
GHB: use, abuse and withdrawal
GHB as a signalling molecule in brain


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