Simultaneous stimulation of slow-wave sleep and growth hormone secretion by gamma-hydroxybutyrate in normal young Men
by
Van Cauter E, Plat L, Scharf MB, Leproult R,
Cespedes S, L'Hermite-Baleriaux M, Copinschi G
Department of Medicine,
University of Chicago,
Illinois 60637, USA.
evacauter@medicine.bsd.uchicago.edu
J Clin Invest 1997 Aug 1; 100(3):745-53


ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: This review highlights the biochemistry, pharmacology, and toxicology of the naturally-occurring fatty acid derivative, gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB). GHB is derived from gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and is proposed to function as an inhibitory chemical transmitter in the central nervous system. CONTENT: When administered in pharmacological doses, its powerful central nervous system depressant effects are readily observed. Although some of the neurophysiological actions of GHB could involve alterations in dopaminergic transmission in the basal ganglia, both its physiological and pharmacological actions are probably mediated through specific brain receptors for GHB. In addition, GHB might mediate some of its effects through interaction with the GABA(B) receptor. Experimentally, GHB has been used as a model for petit mal epilepsy; clinically, it has been used as a general anesthetic and as a drug to treat certain sleep disorders and related conditions. Owing to the purported ability of GHB to induce a state of euphoria, recreational use of this substance is popular. Although no deaths or long-term problems have been associated with GHB abuse, symptoms of GHB intoxication can be severe. The continued potential for GHB abuse makes it imperative for clinical toxicologists to be aware of the effects of this agent. Future research on the mechanism of action of GHB is needed to elucidate both its central nervous system depressant properties and its ability to effect a state of well-being.


GHB
GHB and GABA
GHB withdrawal
GHB and cocaine
Growth hormone
Drugs and reward
GHB and alcoholism
GHB and narcolepsy
GHB and the mouse
Withdrawal syndrome
Neuropeptides and human sleep
Growth hormone and depression
The first authentic antidepressant?
GHB (Xyrem): tolerance and withdrawal
Presence of GHB and GBL in alcoholic and non-alcoholic drinks


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