GABAergic MECHANISMS OF OPIATE REINFORCEMENT
by
Xi ZX, Stein EA.
Department of Physiology and Neuroscience,
Medical University of South Carolina,
Charleston, SC 29425
and
Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Medicine,
Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI 53226, USA.
Alcohol Alcohol 2002 Sep-Oct;37(5):485-94


ABSTRACT

The neurobiological mechanisms of opiate-induced reinforcement are still not completely understood. Over the past two decades, the vast majority of studies have focused on the role of the mesolimbic dopamine (DA) system. However, current studies strongly suggest that opiate actions on gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-ergic cells in both the ventral tegmental area (VTA) and the nucleus accumbens (NAcc) appear to play critical roles. In this review, we focus on the neurochemical substrates of opiate reinforcement and review the role of DA and non-DA substrates, including opioid, GABA, glutamate and serotonin on opiate-reinforced behaviour and the activity of dopaminergic and GABAergic neurons in the VTA and the NAcc.
Alcohol
Opiates
GABA(B)
Benzo choices
Benzodiazepines
Neuroactive steroids
GABA(A) and fluoxetine
Anxiolytics and antidepressants
Adenosine and the nucleus accumbens
Pain, motivation, pleasure and the rostral shell
Depression, dopamine and dextroamphetamine
Mesolimbic medium spiny neurons and pleasure
The nucleus accumbens: opioids versus cannabinoids


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