Folic Acid, neurodegenerative and neuropsychiatric disease
by
Kronenberg G, Colla M, Endres M.
Klinik und Poliklinik für Neurologie,
Charité-Universitätsmedizin Berlin,
Campus Mitte, Charitéplatz 1,
D-10117 Berlin, Germany.
matthias.endres@charite.de.
Curr Mol Med. 2009 Apr;9(3):315-23.


ABSTRACT

Folic acid plays an important role in neuroplasticity and in the maintenance of neuronal integrity. Folate is a co-factor in one-carbon metabolism during which it promotes the regeneration of methionine from homocysteine, a highly reactive sulfur-containing amino acid. Methionine may then be converted to S-adenosylmethionine (SAM), the prinicpal methyl donor in most biosynthetic methylation reactions. On the cellular level, folate deficiency and hyperhomocysteinemia exert multiple detrimental effects. These include induction of DNA damage, uracil misincorporation into DNA and altered patterns of DNA methylation. Low folate status and elevated homocysteine increase the generation of reactive oxygen species and contribute to excitotoxicity and mitochondrial dysfunction which may lead to apoptosis. Strong epidemiological and experimental evidence links derangements of one-carbon metabolism to vascular, neurodegenerative and neuropsychiatric disease, including most prominently cerebral ischemia, Alzheimer's dementia and depression. Although firm evidence from controlled clinical trials is largely lacking, B-vitamin supplementation and homocysteine reduction may have a role especially in the primary prevention of stroke and dementia as well as as an adjunct to antidepressant pharmacotherapy.
Options
Reboxetine
Maprotiline
Imipramine
Desipramine
SSRIs v TCAs
TCA mechanisms
Atypical depression
Desipramine/5-HT2
Retarded depression
Hippocampal remdelling
Selectivity or multiplicity?
Noradrenaline and dopamine
The hippocampus in depression
ECT, melancholia and hippocampal neogenesis
Antidepressant folic acid and the opioid system
Depression, antidepressants and the hippocampus
Desipramine, antidepressants and the opioid system
Desipramine and the postsynaptic alpha-2 adrenergic receptors

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