Essential fatty acids predict metabolites of serotonin and dopamine in cerebrospinal fluid among healthy control subjects, and early- and late-onset alcoholics
Hibbeln JR, Linnoila M, Umhau JC, Rawlings R, George DT, Salem N Jr
Laboratory of Membrane Biochemistry and Biophysics,
National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism,
Bethesda, Maryland, USA.
Biol Psychiatry 1998 Aug 15; 44(4):235-42


BACKGROUND: Impulsive violence, suicide, and depression are strongly associated with low concentrations of cerebrospinal fluid 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (CSF 5-HIAA). Increased suicide and trauma reported in some cholesterol-lowering trials may be related to altered concentrations of polyunsaturated fatty acids rather than cholesterol, a possible surrogate marker. METHODS: CSF 5-HIAA and homovanillic acid (HVA), total cholesterol, and plasma fatty acid concentrations were examined in 176 subjects, including 49 healthy volunteers, and 88 early- and 39 late-onset alcoholics. RESULTS: Among each group, polyunsaturated fatty acids predicted both CSF 5-HIAA and CSF HVA concentrations, but total cholesterol was unrelated to either neurotransmitter metabolite. The relationships between plasma 22: 6n3 and CSF 5-HIAA were significantly different when healthy volunteers (r = .35) were compared to early-onset alcoholics (r = -.38) (p < .0002). CONCLUSIONS: Dietary studies are indicated to determine if essential fatty acid supplementation can influence central nervous system serotonin and dopamine metabolism and modify impulsive behaviors related to these neurotransmitters.
Evolution and emotion
The evolution of suicide
Shakespearean suicides
Omega-3 plus antidepressant
Alcohol, suicide and serotonin
How stress triggers depression
Suicide, serotonin and dopamine
Omega-3 fatty acids and depression
Aging, Omega-3 fatty acids and the brain
Cholesterol, essential fatty acids and suicide
Antidepressant activity of omega-3 fatty acids
Ethyl-eicosapentaenoate as an antidepressant
Unsaturated fatty acid deficiency and dopamine

and further reading

Future Opioids
BLTC Research
Utopian Surgery?
The Abolitionist Project
The Hedonistic Imperative
The Reproductive Revolution
Critique of Huxley's Brave New World

The Good Drug Guide
The Good Drug Guide

The Responsible Parent's Guide
To Healthy Mood Boosters For All The Family