Physical symptoms comorbid with depression
and the new antidepressant duloxetine

by
Bailey KP. Yale University School of Nursing,
New Haven, Connecticut, USA.
katharine.bailey@yale.edu
J Psychosoc Nurs Ment Health Serv. 2003 Dec;41(12):13-8.


ABSTRACT

Most general descriptions of depression that date back to Hippocrates, including the DSM-IV, have listed gastrointestinal problems, sleep disturbances, headaches, appetite changes, and aches and pains of a diffuse nature as common features of the disorder. In addition, physical symptoms have a strong association with psychiatric disorders, and the presence of any physical symptom may increase the likelihood of a mood or anxiety disorder by two-fold or three-fold. A growing body of evidence suggests that serotonin and norepinephrine may share neurochemical mechanisms that tie depression and physical symptoms together. Both selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors alone and antidepressant agents that incorporate both serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibition have shown evidence of relieving physical symptoms. Given the additional disease burden caused by physical symptoms in depression, it is vital that antidepressant agents that effectively treat the physical symptoms and chronic pain associated with depression be used.
SSRIs
NARIs
SNRIs
5-HT1a
Serotonin
Dopamine
Milnacipran
Venlafaxine
Noradrenaline
Duloxetine 2002
Alpha2 antagonism
Duloxetine: hope or hype?
Duloxetine and depression
Duloxetine for major depression
Duloxetine (Cymbalta): structure
Duloxetine for urinary incontinence
Duloxetine: efficacy and tolerability
Duloxetine (Cymbalta), serotonin and noradrenaline
Duloxetine (Cymbalta) and painful physical symptoms

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