Parkinsonian Motor Characteristics
in Unipolar Major Depression

by
Rogers MA, Bradshaw JL, Phillips JG,
Chiu E, Vaddadi K, Presnel I, Mileshkin C
Department of Psychology,
Monash University, Victoria, Australia
J Clin Exp Neuropsychol 2000 Apr; 22(2):232-244


ABSTRACT

Clinical observation points to similarities between psychomotor retardation in major depression and bradykinesia in Parkinson's disease (PD). While common elements of neuropathology have been proposed to account for this, experimental investigations of this possible link have been few and inconclusive. The present study attempts to determine whether patients with depression display the characteristically Parkinsonian reliance on external cues; and if so, whether this is common to both melancholic and non-melancholic patients. Twenty three patients with unipolar major depression (11 melancholic and 12 non-melancholic) and 24 age-matched healthy controls performed a serial choice reaction time task known to be sensitive to Parkinsonian movement deficits. The melancholic patients showed a Parkinsonian pattern of impairment on the task, exhibiting a particular difficulty when initiating movements in the absence of external cues. This was largely alleviated when a moderate amount of external cueing was provided. At a high level of advance information, melancholic patients were again slow relative to controls. A base-line measure of bradykinesia and a derived measure of dependence upon external cues both correlated significantly with CORE (measure of psychomotor disturbance) ratings. The non-melancholic patients did not show any measurable motor impairment. This cue-dependent deficit may be due to an underlying basal ganglia dysfunction similar to that involved in PD, i.e. a failure of internal cueing. Difficulty with a high level of external cueing might reflect bradyphrenia or a prefrontal motor deficit of ability to plan multiple upcoming movements simultaneously. The results suggest that depression subtypes involve differing patterns of fronto-striatal impairment.
NADH
Selegiline
Tolcapone
Levodopa
Dopamine
Tolcapone
Rasagiline
GBR12909
Entacapone
Pramipexole
Bromocriptine
Dopaminergics
Parkinsonian pain
Retarded depression
The dopamine transporter
Rasagiline and the amines
Parkinson's disease: resources
Depression and Parkinson's disease
Hedonistic homeostatic dysregulation


Refs
and further reading

HOME
HedWeb
Nootropics
Cocaine.org
Future Opioids
BLTC Research
MDMA/Ecstasy
Superhapiness?
Utopian Surgery?
The Abolitionist Project
The Hedonistic Imperative
The Reproductive Revolution
Critique of Huxley's Brave New World

The Good Drug Guide
The Good Drug Guide

The Responsible Parent's Guide
To Healthy Mood Boosters For All The Family