Further evidence for the depressive effects of cytokines:
Anhedonia and neurochemical changes

by
Anisman H, Kokkinidis L, Merali Z.
Institute of Neuroscience,
Life Science Research Building,
Carleton University, Ottawa, ON, Canada
Brain Behav Immun 2002 Oct;16(5):544-


ABSTRACT

Although human studies have emphasized a role for IL-2 in depressive illness, limited attention has been devoted to the behavioral and neurochemical effects of this cytokine in animal studies. The present review assesses the behavioral effects of IL-2 in rodents, in counterpoint to the effects of interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta), necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and endotoxin challenge. Unlike IL-1beta, systemic IL-2 provokes modest effects on hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) functioning, and does not provoke marked signs of illness or anxiety. In some respects, however, IL-2 elicits effects reminiscent of traditional stressors, including anhedonia (diminished pleasure gained from otherwise rewarding stimuli). Additionally, when chronically administered, IL-2 may impact on cognitive processes, including spatial working memory. While IL-2 may induce depressive-like symptoms, the available data are sparse, have hardly considered the impact of chronic cytokine treatment, only assessed behavior in a narrow range of tests, and it remains to be established whether the effects of IL-2 are modifiable by antidepressant treatments. Finally, as the effects of IL-2 on CNS processes vary in a biphasic fashion, and may also engender neurotoxic effects, further analyses are necessary to discern under what conditions this cytokine provokes depressive-like behavioral outcomes.
Stress
Options
Depression
Interferons
Interleukins
21st Century
Cytokines and psychiatry
Cytokines and depression
Inflammation and depression
The vagus nerve and cytokines
Cytokines and major depression
Cytokines, stress and depression
Antidepressants and cytokine production
Cytokines, depression and antidepressants
Cytokines and heart failure-induced anhedonia
The immune system, depression and antidepressants



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