National estimates of antidepressant medication use
among U.S. children, 1997-2002

Varley CK.
Vitiello B, Zuvekas SH, Norquist GS.
Child and Adolescent Treatment and Preventive Intervention Research Branch,
National Institute of Mental Health, Bethesda, MD, USA.
J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2006 Mar;45(3):271-9.


OBJECTIVE: A threefold increase in the use of antidepressants has been reported among children (18 years old and younger) between 1987 (0.3%) and 1996 (1.0%). The aim of this study was to determine whether pediatric use of antidepressants continued to rise at a national level during the period 1997-2002. METHOD: The Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (MEPS) database for the years 1997-2002 was analyzed. The MEPS is a yearly survey of a nationally representative sample of civilian, noninstitutionalized U.S. households, conducted by the U.S. Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. Overall response rate ranged between 64% and 68%. RESULTS: An estimated 1.4 million (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.1-1.7) children received antidepressant medication in 2002 as compared to 0.9 million (95% CI 0.7-1.2) in 1997 (p = .01). The percentage of users increased from 1.3% (95% CI 0.9-1.6) in 1997 to 1.8% (95% CI 1.5-2.1) in 2002 (p < .01). Adolescent use (2.1% in 1997 versus 3.9% in 2002 (p < .001) accounted for the increase, with no change among children younger than 13 years. Also among adolescents, the use rate remained stable during the 2000-2002 period. The increase was caused by use of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and other newer antidepressants, whereas use of TCAs remained stable in adolescents (p = .84) and declined in prepubertal children (p = .04). Antidepressant use was similar among males and females and higher among whites than blacks and Hispanics. CONCLUSIONS: Nationwide, the use of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor antidepressant medications continued to increase in adolescents in the late 1990s and until the year 2000, with no further increase through 2002, and remained stable in prepubertal children.
21st Century
Atypical depression
Retarded depression
The monoamine hypothesis
Old and new antidepressants
Melancholic depression in toddlers
Types of depression and mood-disorder
Are 'broad spectrum' antidepressants best?
Depressed preschoolers with and without anhedonia

and further reading

Future Opioids
BLTC Research
Utopian Surgery?
The Abolitionist Project
The Hedonistic Imperative
The Reproductive Revolution
Critique of Huxley's Brave New World

The Good Drug Guide
The Good Drug Guide

The Responsible Parent's Guide
To Healthy Mood Boosters For All The Family