Antidepressant-associated mania:
a controlled comparison with spontaneous mania

by
Stoll AL, Mayer PV, Kolbrener M, Goldstein E,
Suplit B, Lucier J, Cohen BM, Tohen M
Bipolar and Psychotic Disorders Program,
Mailman Research Center,
McLean Hospital, Belmont, Mass.
Am J Psychiatry 1994 Nov; 151(11):1642-5


ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Antidepressants have been associated with the induction of mania and rapid cycling. This study examined whether antidepressant-associated manic states differ in any way from spontaneous mania. METHOD: Forty-nine consecutive inpatients with antidepressant-associated manic states were compared with 49 matched inpatients with spontaneous mania in a blind, retrospective chart review. RESULTS: Across virtually every clinical measure examined, the patients with antidepressant-associated manic states experienced milder and more time-limited manic episodes than the patients with spontaneous mania. The patients with antidepressant-associated manic states were subject to frequent checking by nurses and hall restriction for a significantly shorter period of time than the patients with spontaneous mania. The patients with antidepressant-associated manic states also had significantly less severe levels of delusions, hallucinations, psychomotor agitation, and bizarre behavior, according to a standard rating instrument, than the patients with spontaneous mania. For further study the patients with antidepressant-associated mania were divided into subgroups taking four individual classes of antidepressant drugs: tricyclics (N = 19), fluoxetine (N = 13), monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) (N = 8), and bupropion (N = 6); three patients taking combinations of drugs were not included in these analyses. The patients with MAOI- and bupropion-associated mania had a slightly lower overall rating of severity of psychopathology at admission than the subgroups with fluoxetine- and tricyclic-associated mania. CONCLUSIONS: Antidepressant-associated mania appears to be a milder and more time-limited syndrome than spontaneous mania and may represent a distinct clinical entity. MAOIs and bupropion may be associated with milder manic states than either tricyclic drugs or fluoxetine.
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The manic spectrum
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Drug-induced depression
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Bupropion for depressed bipolars
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Bupropion and the dopamine transporter
Antidepressant-induced mania - 'bipolar III'
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