Mood-elevating effects of opioid analgesics in patients with bipolar disorder
Schaffer CB, Nordahl TE, Schaffer LC, Howe J.
Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences,
University of California, Davis, California, USA.
J Neuropsychiatry Clin Neurosci. 2007 Fall;19(4):449-52.


Opioids can have mood-elevating effects in healthy subjects and have been used successfully to treat refractory depressed patients. A few case reports indicate that opioid analgesics can induce mania. The authors investigated the mood reaction of opioid analgesics in patients with bipolar disorder. Nine (27%) of 33 patients who took opioid analgesics for medical reasons experienced a significant hypomanic/manic reaction, and two other patients reported an antidepressant effect. None of the comparison subjects reported a significant mood reaction from opioid analgesics. These results indicate that opioid analgesics can have an important mood-altering effect on patients with known bipolar disorder.
Unipolar mania
Protein kinases
Protein kinase C
Bipolar disorders
Drugs for bipolars
Lithium prophylaxis
The manic spectrum
The many faces of mania
The ERK signaling cascade
The protein kinase C cascade
Mania: lithium versus divaplroex
Mood stabilizers for bipolar disorder

and further reading

Future Opioids
BLTC Research
Utopian Surgery?
The Abolitionist Project
The Hedonistic Imperative
The Reproductive Revolution
Critique of Huxley's Brave New World

The Good Drug Guide
The Good Drug Guide

The Responsible Parent's Guide
To Healthy Mood Boosters For All The Family