Repeated stress and structural plasticity in the brain
by
Radley JJ, Morrison JH.
Laboratory of Neuronal Structure and Function,
The Salk Institute for Biological Studies,
La Jolla, CA 92037, USA.
Ageing Res Rev. 2005 May;4(2):271-87.


ABSTRACT

Although adrenal steroid receptors are distributed widely throughout the central nervous system, specific limbic and cortical regions targeted by stress hormones play a key role in integrating behavioral and physiological responses during stress and adaptation to subsequent stressors. When the stressor is of a sufficient magnitude or prolonged, it may result in abnormal changes in brain plasticity that, paradoxically, may impair the ability of the brain to appropriately regulate and respond to subsequent stressors. Here we review how repeated stress produces alterations in brain plasticity in animal models, and discuss its relevance to behavioral changes associated with these regions. Interestingly, prolonged stress produces opposing effects on structural plasticity, notably dendritic atrophy and excitatory synapse loss in the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex, and growth of dendrites and spines in the amygdala. The granule cells of the dentate gyrus are also significantly affected through a decrease in the rate neurogenesis following prolonged stress. How functional impairments in these brain regions play a role in stress-related mental illnesses is discussed in this context. Finally, we discuss the cumulative impact of stress-induced structural plasticity in aging.
CRF
LHPA
Stress
Cytokines
Antalarmin
Ketoconazole
Noradrenaline
Corticosteroids
Cushing's syndrome
Stress and aggression
Glucocorticoids and mood
Hippocampal remodelling
Neuroendocrinology of stress
Stress, depression and anxiety
HPA axis, serotonin and suicide
Depression, opioids and the HPA
Antidepressants and new brain cells
The corticosteroid hypothesis of depression
An overactive immune system and depression
Stress and CRH, corticosteroids and monoamines
Stress, glucocorticoid receptor loss and depression
Stress, dynorphin, dysphoria and the kappa opioid system
Hypertrophy of amygdala and long-lasting anxiety after chronic stress

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