Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder
by
Biederman J, Faraone SV.
Pediatric Psychopharmacology Unit of the Child Psychiatry Service,
Massachusetts General Hospital,
and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02114, USA.
biederman@helix.mgh.harvard.edu
Lancet. 2005 Jul 16-22;366(9481):237-48


ABSTRACT

Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a disorder of inattention, impulsivity, and hyperactivity that affects 8-12% of children worldwide. Although the rate of ADHD falls with age, at least half of children with the disorder will have impairing symptoms in adulthood. Twin, adoption, and molecular genetic studies show ADHD to be highly heritable, and other findings have recorded obstetric complications and psychosocial adversity as predisposing risk factors. Converging evidence from animal and human studies implicates the dysregulation of frontal-subcortical-cerebellar catecholaminergic circuits in the pathophysiology of ADHD, and molecular imaging studies suggest that abnormalities of the dopamine transporter lead to impaired neurotransmission. Studies during the past decade have shown the safety and effectiveness of new non-stimulant drugs and long-acting formulations of methylphenidate and amfetamine. Other investigations have also clarified the appropriate role of targeted psychosocial treatments in the context of ongoing pharmacotherapy.
ADHD
Adderall
Pemoline
The Ritalin Kid
Methylphenidate
Methylphenidate SR
'Animal models' of ADHD
Adult attention-deficit disorder
Neuropsychopharmacology of ADHD


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