Adenosine A(2A) receptors and depression
El Yacoubi M, Costentin J, Vaugeois JM.
UMR 6036 CNRS, IFRMP 23,
U.F.R. de Medecine & Pharmacie, Rouen, France.
Neurology. 2003 Dec 9;61(11 Suppl 6):S82-7


Adenosine and its analogues have been shown to induce "behavioral despair" in animal models believed to be relevant to depression. Recent data have shown that selective adenosine A(2A) receptor antagonists (e.g., SCH 58261, ZM241385, and KW6002) or genetic inactivation of the receptor was effective in reversing signs of behavioral despair in the tail suspension and forced swim tests, two screening procedures predictive of antidepressant activity. A(2A) antagonists were active in the tail suspension test using either mice previously screened for having high immobility scores or mice that were selectively bred for their spontaneous "helplessness" in this test. At stimulant doses, caffeine, a nonselective A(1)/A(2A) receptor antagonist, was effective in the forced swim test. The authors have hypothesized that the antidepressant-like effect of selective A(2A) antagonists is linked to an interaction with dopaminergic transmission, possibly in the frontal cortex. In support of this idea, administration of the dopamine D(2) receptor antagonist haloperidol prevented antidepressant-like effects elicited by SCH 58261 in the forced swim test (putatively involving cortex), whereas it had no effect on stimulant motor effects of SCH 58261 (putatively linked to ventral striatum). The interaction profile of caffeine with haloperidol differed markedly from that of SCH 58261 in the forced swim and motor activity tests. Therefore, a clear-cut antidepressant-like effect could not be ascribed to caffeine. In conclusion, available data support the proposition that a selective blockade of the adenosine A(2A) receptor may be an interesting target for the development of effective antidepressant agents.
Coffee and sex
Coffee and fags
Adenosine and reward
Hypersomnia and depression
Adenosine receptor antagonists
MAO inhibition in human coffee drinkers

and further reading

Future Opioids
BLTC Research
Utopian Surgery?
The Abolitionist Project
The Hedonistic Imperative
The Reproductive Revolution
Critique of Huxley's Brave New World

The Good Drug Guide
The Good Drug Guide

The Responsible Parent's Guide
To Healthy Mood Boosters For All The Family