Detrimental effects of chronic hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activation. From obesity to memory deficits
by
Raber J
Gladstone Institute of Neurological Diseases,
University of California,
San Francisco,
CA 94141-9100, USA.
Mol Neurobiol 1998 Aug; 18(1): 1-22


ABSTRACT

Increasing evidence suggests that the detrimental effects of glucocorticoid (GC) hypersecretion occur by activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis in several human pathologies, including obesity, Alzheimer's disease, AIDS dementia, and depression. The different patterns of response by the HPA axis during chronic activation are an important consideration in selecting an animal model to assess HPA axis function in a particular disorder. This article will discuss how chronic HPA axis activation and GC hypersecretion affect hippocampal function and contribute to the development of obesity. In the brain, the hippocampus has the highest concentration of GC receptors. Chronic stress or corticosterone treatment induces neuropathological alterations, such as dendritic atrophy in hippocampal neurons, which are paralleled by cognitive deficits. Excitatory amino acid (EAA) neurotransmission has been implicated in chronic HPA axis activation. EAAs play a major role in neuroendocrine regulation. Hippocampal dendritic atrophy may involve alterations in EAA transporter function, and decreased EAA transporter function may also contribute to chronic HPA axis activation. Understanding the molecular mechanisms of HPA axis activation will likely advance the development of therapeutic interventions for conditions in which GC levels are chronically elevated.
CRF
LHPA
Stress
Astressin
Metyrapone
Ketoconazole
Noradrenaline
Corticosteroids
Mood disorders
Cushing's syndrome
Glucocorticoids and mood
Hippocampal remodelling
Neuroendocrinology of stress
HPA axis, serotonin and suicide
Depression, opioids and the HPA
Antidepressants and cell growth
Stress, dynorphin, dysphoria and the kappa opioid system


Refs
and further reading

HOME
HedWeb
Nootropics
Cocaine.org
Future Opioids
BLTC Research
MDMA/Ecstasy
Superhapiness?
Utopian Surgery?
The Abolitionist Project
The Hedonistic Imperative
The Reproductive Revolution
Critique of Huxley's Brave New World

The Good Drug Guide
The Good Drug Guide

The Responsible Parent's Guide
To Healthy Mood Boosters For All The Family